Diameter: 11 to 22 μm
Very fine: < 10 μm, Fine: < 20 μm, Medium: 20-50 μm, Course: > 50 μm
Staple length: 10 - 65 mm
short < 26 mm, medium 26-29 mm, long: 30-38 mm, extra long: 39 mm and over
Natural fibre colour: Off-white colour
Microscopic Images (Cross sectional and SEM):
M. Dochia, … Z. Roskwitalski, in Handbook of Natural Fibres: Types, Properties and Factors Affecting Breeding and Cultivation, 2012Caption:
Mature cotton has a kidney shaped cross section with a small soft centre (lumem).
Mercersiced cotton has a almost round shaped cross section.
fibres flatten and twist (convolute/ribbon-like).
Tensile strength (cN/dtex) : 2.6-4.3 dry, 2.9-5.6 wet
Moisture regain (%): 8.5%
Flammability: Cellulosic fibres such as cotton, hemp jute etc. burns with a steady flame and smells like burning paper or leaves. The ash is greyish and easily crushed.
High water usage.
use of chemical pesticides
GM cotton (genertically modified)
Organic cotton, but lower yeild
Apparel: for price, durability, good laundering and strength.
Furnishing: Sheets, curtains, towels (moisture absorption)
Industrial: Canvas, cords, reinforcing fabrics, but mainly superseded by synthetic fabrics
Taylor MA, 2004. Technology of Textile Properties. Third edition. Forbes Publications, London, UK.
Zhong Z and Xiao C, 2008. Fabric composition and testing. In: Fabric Testing. Ed: Hu, J. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.
ISO/TR 11827:2012 Textiles — Composition testing — Identification of fibres.
Houck, Max M. Identification of Textile Fibers. Cambridge : Boca Raton: Woodhead Pub. in Association with The Textile Institute ; CRC, 2009. Print.