Type: Man-made fibres | Classification: Organic | Sub-classification: Synthetic fibre

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Fibre structure & physical properties

Fibre composition:


Diameter: Can be made to any diameter
Very fine: < 10 μm, Fine: < 20 μm, Medium: 20-50 μm, Course: > 50 μm

Length: Filament

Staple length: continuous filament
short < 26 mm, medium 26-29 mm, long: 30-38 mm, extra long: 39 mm and over

Natural fibre colour: White colour

Microscopic Images (Cross sectional and SEM):

Image source: Caption:

Its cross section is usually shaped as a dog bone or kidney shape (if dry spun). It tends to be near circular if wet spun. May be produced as a bi-component.

(CC) Sebastian Nordstrom
(CC) Sebastian Nordstrom
(CC) Sebastian Nordstrom
(CC) Sebastian Nordstrom


Pitted or grainy surface. Generally used in staple form and often crimped (texturized) before being cut.

Fibre properties (Mechanical, Chemical and Thermal)

Mechanical Properties

Tensile strength (cN/dtex) :

Chemical Properties

Hydrophobicity: Hydrophobic

Moisture regain (%): 1.5%

Thermal Properties

Flammability: Burns and melts, no smoke. Material will continue to burn after it has been removed from the flame. The odour is like turmeric. Resdiue has a black hard crust that can be easily crushed between the fingers.

Sustainability considerations

It is not easily recycled nor is it readily biodegradable.
manufacturing process. Has health and environmental impacts.
acrylonitrile (aka vinyl cyanide) is a carcinogen and dangerous to the health of factory workers.

End uses

Apparel: Knitwear (Jumpers, Pile fabrics); Modacrylics for fake fur.
Funishings: Tufted blankets


Materials using this fibre

Additional resources

Taylor MA, 2004. Technology of Textile Properties. Third edition. Forbes Publications, London, UK.

Zhong Z and Xiao C, 2008. Fabric composition and testing. In: Fabric Testing. Ed: Hu, J. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.

ISO/TR 11827:2012 Textiles — Composition testing — Identification of fibres.

Houck, Max M. Identification of Textile Fibers. Cambridge : Boca Raton: Woodhead Pub. in Association with The Textile Institute ; CRC, 2009. Print.